How to roast

A complete how-to guide to cooking a previously frozen turkey breast. Get perfect results the first time and every time with these easy step by step photo instructions. Great taste, moist and fork tender turkey makes a great holiday or family meal. Let’s not make an easy thing hard.

image of a cooked turkey breast in a roasting pan I have cooked many turkey breasts over the years and wanted to give you the easiest instructions possible, so you don’t spend the whole day in the kitchen cooking and miss all the family fun.

I want to thaw, trim, brush, roast, carve, and eat. Add some gravy if you want (you do) and we are done. It really is that simple.

The short version of this recipe is really simple. You can do this.

  1. Thaw and trim a frozen turkey breast.
  2. Brush with butter or oil
  3. Cook at 350 degrees until an internal temperature of 165 and tent if getting too brown.
  4. Rest tented for 15 minutes before carving. Make gravy while resting.

That it but let’s expand on the detail and try to answer any questions you may have.

My Rating

My rating system. Great 5 out of 5 I love turkey, and this is a solid lower 5. It is not filet, and it is not that supped up “Martha Stewart” turkey breast. So not a high 5. You do get something for all that work.

What Happens During the Coffee Roasting Process?

Green coffee changes drastically during the roasting process. When you roast coffee, moisture is forced out of the bean, causing it to dry and expand.

During the process, some of the natural sugars are converted into CO2 gas while others are caramelized into some of the flavors that help form the complex flavors in the coffee. When the process is complete, the green bean will transform into a brown bean that is about 18% lighter while being 50 to 100% larger.

As soon as the roasting process is complete, the coffee begins to “degas,” and in as little as a week or two, the roasted coffee will have already begun to lose some of its flavor and aromas.

The 10 Stages of Roasting Coffee

Pro roasters have identified ten levels of roast that beans can (but not necessarily should) go through. Which levels you reach will be up to you:

  1. Green: The beans will retain their virgin green essence, even as they start to heat.
  2. Yellow: The color will become yellowish, and the beans will emit a grassy odor.
  3. Steam: Steam will rise from the beans. This is the water inside the beans evaporating.
  4. First Crack: Here’s where the real roasting begins. Sugars inside the beans caramelize, and a cracking sound is heard, like the sound of popcorn popping.
  5. City Roast: Following the first crack, the beans have reached City Roast, the minimum level of roast acceptable for grinding and brewing.
  6. City Plus Roast: With further caramelization of sugars and the migration of oils, the beans swell in size and reach City Plus Roast. This is a popular and common level of roast to use.
  7. Full City Roast: Beyond the limits of City Plus is the Full City, an even darker roast that takes the beans to the verge of a second cracking.
  8. Second Crack (Full City Plus Roast): The beans undergo a second, more violent cracking and enter Full City Plus. This roast will reveal even more layers of intensity to the flavor.
  9. Dark Roast (French Roast): The smoke will become pungent, the sugars will burn as much as they can without ruining the flavor, and the beans overall structure will break down. This is the utmost limit of roasting within the confines of good flavor.
  10. Burn: If you haven’t stopped roasting by this point, the smell will go from pungent to terrible, and the beans will burn.
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Cooling the Beans and Removing Chaff

During the roasting process, the coffee beans will shed their outer skins, leaving behind the shell which is known as the chaff.

To remove the chaff, take 2 colanders and dump the hot beans into the colander as soon as you are done roasting. Continue to dump the beans back and forth between the two colanders a few times to remove the chaff. If you don’t get it all don’t worry about it.

The taste of your coffee won’t be affected by the chaff as long as there is only a small quantity of it left behind.

3 Things You Need to Roast Your Own Coffee at Home

You will need a few supplies to help you perform the roast properly:

  1. Green Coffee – Depending on where you live this could be the most difficult part of your roasting process. Check with your local coffee shops or look to see if there are any roasters in your area that sell unroasted coffee beans.
  2. Roaster – There are many different types of roasters out there and even a simple popcorn maker can do the job. Below we will highlight a few of the methods and what type of roaster you should use.
  3. Storage – Once you roast your coffee, you will need a place to store it until you use it. Remember, the more air tight the better. But even the best container won’t stop the coffee from losing its flavor and aroma after about a week if it isn’t used.

Now that you have everything you need to roast, it is time to get started. Keep in mind that for the roasting process to be successful, the beans must be heated to temperatures between 370 degrees F to 540 degrees F.

When you roast, be sure the beans remain in constant motion so none of them become scorched. You should also be aware that the roasting process produces quite a bit of smoke, so be sure the area you are roasting is well ventilated or your house will quickly become quite smoky.

How to Roast Coffee With a Roasting Machine

Today you can buy several different types of roasting machines that will take care of your coffee roasting process for you. These machines operate much like a popcorn popper by using fast-moving hot air to roast the beans and keep them agitated while they are roasting.

This is by far the easiest method of all of them as the roaster handles most of the heavy lifting for you.

  1. Place the proper amount of coffee inside the roaster. Check your manual to determine the correct amount.
  2. Close the roaster and turn it on.
  3. Allow the coffee to roast until the desired color has been reached. Remember, the longer you roast the coffee, the darker and stronger it will become.
  4. Pour the coffee into a colander and stir it until it is warm.
  5. Store the coffee in a room temperature location away from the sun.

How to Roast Coffee Beans With a Stove Top Popcorn Maker

Before the modern inventions of coffee roasters and popcorn poppers, people made due by roasting it on the stove. You will need a stovetop roaster, which is essentially a pot with a lid that you can easily agitate.

What you’ll need:

  • A Whirley Pop Stovetop Popcorn Popper
  • An outdoor burner (gas or electric)
  • Unroasted coffee beans
  • A laser thermometer (optional)
  • A baking sheet
  • An airtight container
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1. Setup and Pre-heat

Hit your favorite local coffee supply store and select some unroasted green coffee beans. Don’t be shy about asking for recommendations regarding how dark the beans you choose should be roasted. That said, don’t be shy about finding out for yourself, experimenting, and learning how to roast to your own taste.

With beans acquired, clear off the picnic table and set up your burner, popper and baking sheet. Pre-heat the Whirley Pop until it reaches about 400 degrees. A laser thermometer is the best way to gauge the temperature, but simply pre-heating for anywhere between 5 and 10 minutes should put the popper in the right range.

2. Add The Coffee Beans

Once the popper is at temperature, add the raw beans and begin cranking the handle. You’ll want to keep those beans moving the whole time in order for them to roast evenly, so crank away from start to finish with a steady, even rhythm. Remember, this is a labor of love.

As you crank, the heat will bring the beans through the stages of roasting. You’ll watch as they go from the raw seeds that coffee begins life as to the beautiful, fragrant pellets of deliciousness you turn them into. Pay attention, because the difference between perfectly roasted and perfectly ruined is only a matter of minutes.

3. Roast The Coffee Beans

As the beans roast, they’ll pass through several stages. You’ll get to see the transition they make from raw to grind-and-brewable, and decide exactly how roasted you want them to be. It’s important to pay attention to the process here- to control the flavor of your coffee, to learn how to master the process, and (most importantly) to keep the beans from burning.

There are ten stages in all. See if you can identify each as you roast, with the exception of the tenth. That stage is to be avoided, as it represents having over-roasted perfectly good beans.

4. Remove and Cool

Once you’ve reached the roast of your choosing, dump the beans onto a baking sheet. Shake the sheet and allow the beans to cool in nature’s breeze, sending jealousy-inducing wafts of goodness into the neighbor’s yard. Depending on how dark the roast is, you’ll soon be ready for storage.

5. Store The Beans

Once the beans are nice and cool, store them in a quality airtight container. Mason jars are the best option, as they create a near-perfect seal. If the roast is Full City or darker, we recommend giving the beans a good 12 hours of cooling time to allow gasses to dissipate before storage.

All that’s left to do after that is grind, brew, and savor the day’s roasting. In under 20 minutes from start to finish, you’ll have fantastic, home-roasted coffee.

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How to Roast Coffee Beans With a Hot Air Popcorn Popper

An air popcorn popper is an easy way to roast coffee and is recommended for any beginner who wants to start roasting their own beans.

It takes only a few short minutes, and allows you to experiment with the roast. Make it light, make it dark; make it everything in between. For turning coffee into a hands-on experience, you can’t beat roasting your own in a machine that for years has only been doing half of the awesome things it’s capable of.

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What You’ll Need:

  • A hot air popcorn popper
  • A bowl
  • Unroasted coffee beans
  • A thermometer (optional)
  • A baking sheet
  • An airtight container

1. Setup and Pre-Heat

Start by gathering all the necessaries in the list above. Hit your preferred local bean dealer (they love it when you call them that) for some raw, green unroasted beans. Pick up a few different varieties, and ask how “well done,” as in dark, your trusted baristas like to roast each one.

At home, give yourself plenty of counter space for the popper, bowl (for catching chaff), and a baking sheet to cool the beans later. Turn the popper on and pre-heat for about 30 seconds.

2. Add The Coffee Beans

Once the popper’s good and hot, add 1/2 cup of beans to the vessel. The whole roast will only take about 5 minutes, but you’ll need to stay close by to monitor the beans through the various stages of roast. DO NOT leave the popper unattended.

3. Roast The Coffee

As the beans roast, they’ll pass through several stages. You’ll get to see the transition they make from raw to grind-and-brewable, and decide exactly how roasted you want them to be. It’s important to pay attention to the process here- to control the flavor of your coffee, to learn how to master the process, and (most importantly) to keep the beans from burning.

4. Remove and Cool

Once you’ve reached the desired roast, shut off the popper and spread the hot beans on the baking sheet. This will allow them to cool quickly. Give the sheet a shake to help the process along, and wait until they are completely cooled before storage.

5. Store The Beans

Once the beans have cooled down, you’ll want to store them in an airtight container. We prefer mason jars or tinted OXO containers. However, you’ll want to give the beans up to 12 hours before storing them if you’ve gone Full City Roast or darker, as the gasses from the beans will need more time to dissipate.

Once the beans are cooled and stored, it’s time to grind and brew the first cup’s worth. Take your time, and enjoy the fruits of your labors. See what characteristics you can coax from the beans at different roast levels. After you’ve mastered the art, you’ll never look at the popcorn machine the same way again.

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These three methods are just a few ways you can try roasting coffee at home. For the truly adventurous, or at least for the grilling fanatics, you could always try roasting the beans in a pan on the grill, or even roasting them in a roaster over a camp fire as well. The possibilities are almost limitless as long as you have a few good containers and a heat source for the roasting process.

Roasting coffee at home is actually a relatively easy process and it allows you to create your own custom, unique tastes in your morning cup of joe. While you are trying your hand at roasting, feel free to experiment using different methods and try roasting the beans for different lengths of time so you find a roast of coffee that fits with your taste preferences perfectly.


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