How to calculate work

A manager’s day is filled with all types of difficult tasks. From appeasing unhappy customers to settling issues between employees to making sure the marketing goals are on track, it seems that a manager’s work is never done. One of the most difficult tasks by far—and the one managers often put off until the very last minute—is trying to calculate work hours. But it doesn’t have to be this way.

The experts at Sling have created a simple, efficient way to tackle the sometimes Herculean task of processing your employees’ hours worked every week. All it takes to get started is establishing a few policies in your employee handbook, and you’ll be in business. Those policies include:

  • How your business will record work hours.
  • The number format you’ll use.
  • A rounding policy.
  • What to do if there are errors in the time record.

In this article, we’ll address each of those topics in the sections below. We’ll also show you step-by-step how to calculate the hours worked for a hypothetical employee, and how you can simplify your work life even further by streamlining the scheduling process.

All of that in one article? Sounds too good to be true. That’s Sling for you.

Before we get started on the actual process of calculating work hours, we need to address the huge purple elephant in the room that everyone wants to ignore but can’t: the law.

What Are Work Hours?

Calculate Work Hours

The United States Department Of Labor defines work hours as:

[The] time an employee must be on duty, on the employer premises, or at any other prescribed place of work.

The important thing to keep in mind about all this is that an employee’s time card (in whatever format the record of time worked takes) is a legal document. That means it can be used in legal proceedings as evidence.

The record of time worked can also be demanded and referenced by the IRS to ensure compliance with local, state, and federal labor laws. Because of this, it’s essential that you do your best to keep accurate records.

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Now that you understand what work hours are and the importance of efficient record-keeping, let’s delve into the step-by-step process of calculating work hours for a hypothetical employee.

How To Calculate Work Hours

Desk with laptop to calculate work hours on

For the purposes of this exercise, we’re going to create a hypothetical employee named Jane. Jane works at a restaurant where her primary responsibility is serving customers. This job pays $10 per hour. Sometimes, though, she works as a hostess when a substitute is needed. This job pays $12 per hour. You’ll see why this is important in step four.

Each of these steps requires that you set some policies and procedures to govern the way you handle the calculation of work hours. After you set those standards, it’s just a matter of using them to do some simple math to figure out each employee’s paycheck. Let’s look at the first step.

1) Establish How Your Business Will Record Work Hours

When you boil it down to the basics, there are three ways to record work hours:

  • A written sign-in sheet.
  • A clock that prints the time on paper time cards.
  • A computer-based tracking system.

There are numerous combinations of each method—like paper time cards for the employees and a time clock connected to a computer. You can also choose to enter time manually from a time card into a software program like Microsoft Excel.

So in our hypothetical situation, let’s say you’re using the standard time clock and paper time cards. Jane would walk into the break room, retrieve her card from the holder, and insert it into the time clock. The time clock would then record the time on the card: 8:58 a.m.

That takes us to the next important step in calculating work hours.

2) Choose A Time Format

This may seem like a strange thing to do, but the format you choose can make your life easier down the road. The two most common time formats are standard and military.

Standard time format is what you see when you look at most clocks: the time from one to twelve. Recording standard time requires the addition of “a.m.” or “p.m.” to differentiate between morning and afternoon.

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Military time counts the morning hours just like the standard format (e.g., 7:24 a.m., 9:11 a.m., 11:47 a.m., etc.). But after 12:59 p.m., military time begins counting by adding an hour to twelve. For example, 1:00 p.m. in standard format would be 13:00 in military time. You’ll notice that you don’t need the “p.m.” to indicate afternoon like you do with standard time format. That’s because the other one o’clock (in the wee hours of the morning) is written 01:00.

Why is this important? Because it makes figuring out the hours worked super easy if you have to do it manually. We’ll use Jane as an example.

Let’s say Jane clocked in at 9:00 a.m. (standard format) and clocked out at 5:00 p.m. You’re going to have to do some roundabout math to calculate the hours worked, since you can’t simply subtract one number from the other in this case.

Now, let’s say that Jane clocked in at 09:00 (military format) and clocked out at 17:00. Calculating the hours worked becomes simply a matter of subtracting nine from 17 to get eight. Jane worked eight hours that day.

3) Set A Rounding Policy

Very rarely will every one of your employees clock in and out precisely on the hour. There are going to be some people early and some people late. This is where a rounding policy comes into play.

The U.S. Department of Labor recommends keeping track of hours worked in fifteen-minute increments. Employee time from one to seven minutes is rounded down, while time from eight to fourteen minutes is rounded up.

For instance, if Jane clocks in at 07:58 and clocks out at 17:02, she’s worked for eight hours and four minutes. That would round down to a straight eight hours. If Jane clocks in at 07:58 and clocks out at 17:10, she’s worked for eight hours and twelve minutes. That would round up to eight hours and fifteen minutes.

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4) Sort Work Hours Into Categories If Necessary

In some industries, like the restaurant business, employees can work different jobs at different pay rates. Remember, Jane works as a server for $10 per hour but sometimes fills in as a hostess for $12 per hour.

When this occurs, it’s important to separate each block of time into the different pay rates so she can be paid accordingly. It becomes a legal issue when you fail at this step, so if it applies to your business, we recommend prioritizing sorting work into categories.

5) Tabulate Hours For The Week

Manager calculating employee work hours

Now it’s time to calculate a whole week’s worth of work for your employee Jane. Here’s the time card she turns in for her server job:

  • Monday: 09:00 to 17:00
  • Tuesday: 08:45 to 17:00
  • Wednesday: 08:58 to 17:02
  • Thursday: 08:59 to 17:10
  • Friday: 09:00 to 17:00

At this point, it’s simply a matter of going through and tabulating the hours worked. Here’s what you would get from the above numbers.

  • Monday: 8 hours
  • Tuesday: 8.25 hours
  • Wednesday: 8 hours (The four extra minutes round down.)
  • Thursday: 8.25 hours (The eleven extra minutes round up.)
  • Friday: 8 hours

Adding all this up, Jane worked a total of 40.5 hours as a server.

Simplify It With Scheduling

You can get a sense of the hours your employees are going to work—and make your work life less stressful in the process—by using a scheduling tool, like Sling, to organize your employees.

Sling for calculating work hours

The Sling app is designed specifically for streamlining the scheduling process, so all of its tools are dedicated to that task. Sling can also help you avoid conflicts by providing:

  • Guidance.
  • Suggestions.
  • Time-off requests.
  • Availability.
  • Notifications of overlapping shifts and double-bookings.

Sling even provides features that help you distribute your schedule efficiently, keep it up to date, find substitutes, and communicate with your employees. It really is the total solution for bringing your staff together, keeping everyone informed, and building a more productive team.

To learn more about how the right scheduling tool can simplify your work life, check out

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